Git Cheatsheet - 2021

Creating Snapshots
Browsing History
Branching & Merging
Rewriting History
Housekeeping(Personal Favorites)

Creating Snapshots

Initializing a repository

1git init

Staging files

1git add file1.js file2.js # Stages multiple files
2git add . # Stages the current directory and all its content

Viewing the status

1git status # Full status
2git status -s # Short status

Committing the staged files

1git commit -m “Message” # Commits with a one-line message
2git commit # Opens the default editor to type a long message

Skipping the staging area

1git commit -am “Message”

Removing files

1git rm file1.js # Removes from working directory and staging area
2git rm --cached file1.js # Removes from staging area only

Renaming or moving files

1git mv file1.js file1.txt

Viewing the staged/unstaged changes

1git diff # Shows unstaged changes
2git diff --staged # Shows staged changes
3git diff --cached # Same as the above

Viewing the history

1git log # Full history
2git log --oneline # Summary
3git log --reverse # Lists the commits from the oldest to the newest

Viewing a commit

1git show 921a2ff # Shows the given commit
2git show HEAD # Shows the last commit
3git show HEAD~2 # Two steps before the last commit
4git show HEAD:file.js # Shows the version of file.js stored in the last commit

Unstaging files (undoing git add)

1git restore --staged file.js # Copies the last version of file.js from repo to index

Discarding local changes

1git restore file.js # Copies file.js from index to working directory
2git restore file1.js file2.js # Restores multiple files in working directory
3git restore . # Discards all local changes (except untracked files)
4git clean -fd # Removes all untracked files

Restoring an earlier version of a file

1git restore --source=HEAD~2 file.js

Browsing History

Viewing the history

1git log --stat # Shows the list of modified files
2git log --patch # Shows the actual changes (patches)

Filtering the history

1git log -3 # Shows the last 3 entries
2git log --author=“Mosh”
3git log --before=“2020-08-17”
4git log --after=“one week ago”
5git log --grep=“GUI” # Commits with “GUI” in their message
6git log -S“GUI” # Commits with “GUI” in their patches
7git log hash1..hash2 # Range of commits
8git log file.txt # Commits that touched file.txt

Formatting the log output

1git log --pretty=format:”%an committed %H”

Creating an alias

1git config --global alias.lg “log --oneline"

Viewing a commit

1git show HEAD~2
2git show HEAD~2:file1.txt # Shows the version of file stored in this commit

Comparing commits

1git diff HEAD~2 HEAD # Shows the changes between two commits
2git diff HEAD~2 HEAD file.txt # Changes to file.txt only

Checking out a commit

1git checkout dad47ed # Checks out the given commit
2git checkout master # Checks out the master branch

Finding a bad commit

1git bisect start
2git bisect bad # Marks the current commit as a bad commit
3git bisect good ca49180 # Marks the given commit as a good commit
4git bisect reset # Terminates the bisect session

Finding contributors

1git shortlog

Viewing the history of a file

1git log file.txt # Shows the commits that touched file.txt
2git log --stat file.txt # Shows statistics (the number of changes) for file.txt
3git log --patch file.txt # Shows the patches (changes) applied to file.txt

Finding the author of lines

1git blame file.txt # Shows the author of each line in file.txt


1git tag v1.0 # Tags the last commit as v1.0
2git tag v1.0 5e7a828 # Tags an earlier commit
3git tag # Lists all the tags
4git tag -d v1.0 # Deletes the given tag

Branching & Merging

Managing branches

1git branch bugfix                   # Creates a new branch called bugfix
2git checkout bugfix                 # Switches to the bugfix branch
3git switch bugfix                   # Same as the above
4git switch -C bugfix                # Creates and switches
5git branch -d bugfix                # Deletes the bugfix branch

Comparing branches

1git log master..bugfix              # Lists the commits in the bugfix branch not in master
2git diff master..bugfix             # Shows the summary of changes


1git stash push -m "some comments"   # Creates a new stash. Without `push`, does the same.
2git statsh pop 1                    # Apply and remove the given stash from stash stack
3git stash list                      # Lists all the stashes
4git stash show [email protected]{1}            # Shows the given stash
5git stash show 1                    # shortcut for [email protected]{1}
6git stash apply 1                   # Applies the given stash to the working dir
7git stash drop 1                    # Deletes the given stash
8git stash clear                     # Deletes all the stashes


1git merge bugfix                    # Merges the bugfix branch into the current branch
2git merge --no-ff bugfix            # Creates a merge commit even if FF is possible
3git merge --squash bugfix           # Performs a squash merge
4git merge --abort                   # Aborts the merge

Viewing the merged branches

1git branch --merged                 # Shows the merged branches
2git branch --no-merged              # Shows the unmerged branches


1git rebase master                   # Changes the base of the current branch

Cherry picking

1git cherry-pick dad47ed             # Applies the given commit on the current branch


Cloning a repository

1git clone url

Syncing with remotes

1git fetch origin master             # Fetches master from origin
2git fetch origin                    # Fetches all objects from origin
3git fetch                           # Shortcut for “git fetch origin”
4git pull                            # Fetch + merge
5git push origin master              # Pushes master to origin
6git push                            # Shortcut for "git push origin master"

Sharing tags

1git push origin v1.0                # Pushes tag v1.0 to origin
2git push origin —delete v1.0

Sharing branches

1git branch -r                       # Shows remote tracking branches
2git branch -vv                      # Shows local & remote tracking branches
3git push -u origin bugfix           # Pushes bugfix to origin
4git push -d origin bugfix           # Removes bugfix from origin

Managing remotes

1git remote                          # Shows remote repos
2git remote add upstream url         # Adds a new remote called upstream
3git remote rm upstream              # Remotes upstream

Rewriting History

Undoing commits

1git reset --soft HEAD^ # Removes the last commit, keeps changed staged
2git reset --mixed HEAD^ # Unstages the changes as well
3git reset --hard HEAD^ # Discards local changes

Reverting commits

1git revert 72856ea # Reverts the given commit
2git revert HEAD~3.. # Reverts the last three commits
3git revert --no-commit HEAD~3..

Recovering lost commits

1git reflog # Shows the history of HEAD
2git reflog show bugfix # Shows the history of bugfix pointer

Amending the last commit

1git commit --amend

Interactive rebasing

1git rebase -i HEAD~5

Change ownership of previous commits

1# below two do the same job, for last x commits
2git rebase -i HEAD~6 -x "git commit --amend --author 'Author Name <[email protected]>' --no-edit"
3# or
4git rebase -i COMMIT_SHA -x "git commit --amend --author 'Author Name <[email protected]>' -CHEAD"

Housekeeping(Personal Favorites)


1git config --global core.autocrlf input # Nix
2git config --global core.autocrlf true  # Windows

Default init branch name

1git config --global init.defaultBranch main

Purge all un-existing remote branches on local

1git remote prune origin --dry-run # This is for pre-checking
2git remote prune origin

Remove local branches

1git branch -D feature/one feature/two bugfix/one

Remove a directory from remote repository after adding them to .gitignore

1git rm -r --cached node_modules
2git commit -m 'Remove the now ignored directory node_modules'
3git push origin main

Happy gitting! :)

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